Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can cause body cells to resist insulin effects. Insulin helps blood glucose pass into cells and to be used as energy. Such resistance causes glucose accumulation in the blood. As the pancreas tries to lower the blood sugar level, it produces more insulin. Moderate or serious insulin resistance can lead to the development of diabetes.
Pregnant women with Garden City PCOS who are obese or overweight are at a high risk of complications. These complications include preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and gestational diabetes.
Common Causes of PCOS
Although the cause of PCOS is not clear, some evidence shows it results from a malfunction of the enzyme that controls male hormone production. Such malfunction causes an increased production of androgens. If the body has too many male hormones, a woman is at risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Also, this increases the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disorders.
In addition, some of the androgens are converted to estrogen, causing a spike in estrogen levels. Without enough progesterone to balance the estrogen spike, endometrial hyperplasia may develop. This condition is characterized by the extreme thickening of the endometrium. Also, endometrial cancer is a possible consequence. Other possible effects of PCOS include the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Typically, symptoms of PCOS appear during puberty and get worse with time. Sometimes, girls with PCOS may not have periods at puberty and ovulation does not take place. Those who already have menstruation may experience irregular vaginal bleeding or may suddenly not have menstruation.
Other symptoms such as virilization or masculinization may also develop. This can result in acne and hirsutism or increased body hair. In rare cases, women with PCOS may experience changes such as deepened voice, increased muscle size, reduced breast size, and hair thinning or hair loss.
PCOS can be treated with medications, exercise, weight loss, dietary changes, body hair and acne management, and infertility treatments. The appropriate treatment for a woman with PCOS depends on the kind and seriousness of her symptoms, her age, and pregnancy plans.
Generally, if a woman’s insulin level is high, her doctor may focus on lowering the level. Exercising and minimizing carbohydrate consumption can help bring down insulin levels. Those who are overweight or obese should focus on losing weight. This can help lower insulin levels to allow the start of ovulation, increase their chances of conceiving, decreasing hair growth.